Geopolitical Orientations Project


(Pictured: Toal, Laruelle, Bakke and O’Loughlin)

In July 2018 Dr John O’Loughlin and Dr Gerard Toal received a US National Science Foundation grant to study the geopolitical orientations of ordinary people in a series of post-Soviet states and regions neighboring the Russian Federation. The award was the US part of a transatlantic research project with Dr Kristin Bakke, University College London. She received a complimentary award from the Research Council of the United Kingdom to work on the same project. Dr Marlene Laruelle, George Washington University, is the lead consultant on the project.

For details on the US side of the award see:

Survey research on this project began in late 2019 and will continue in 2020. A second wave of surveys will be completed, most likely in 2021. Publications and presentations on this research will be forthcoming in 2020.

This research is purely scientific. It receives NO financial support from any defense corporations, state intelligence agencies or state military institutions.